A mixed type essay

Low interest in usual activities or managing day-to-day affairs Sadness Guilt Feelings of worthlessness Though it may seem impossible to experience such extremes at the same time, these episodes defy logic or any predictable pattern of behavior.

A mixed type essay

The risk of chromosome disorders like DS, trisomy 13 and trisomy A mixed type essay increases with maternal age. If a couple has a child with DS, there is usually an increased risk for a second affected child.

There are 3 genetic mechanisms for trisomy The first and most common, is called non-disjunction, where there is an entire extra chromosome 21 in all cells.

A chromosome study karyotype of trisomy 21 is shown in Fig. Individuals with this form of DS are frequently a bit milder in their presentation, depending on the proportion of normal cells. Translocation DS does not vary with age. Children with translocation DS are indistinguishable from individuals with the usual form of DS.

Trisomy 21 An extra whole chromosome 21 in all cells examined is found in about 92 per cent of all DS individuals. This is shown in Figure 1.

DS is common enough that it may appear that there is an excess cluster or hot spot when several DS children are born in the same area, but this is just chance and statistical variation.

As far as we know, there is no relationship between DS and diet, drugs, economic status, or life style. Some evidence suggests that it is a little more common in families with Alzheimer's disease in one or more older family members.

Non-disjunction results from unequal chromosome division, usually in the mother's egg production. This is the form of DS that increases in incidence with increased maternal age. But DS is so common, it is not rare in young parents.

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Risks for amniocentesis results are higher because half to three-quarters of DS fetuses die before birth of natural causes. The risk of DS does not appear increased in siblings of trisomy 21 individuals. Prenatal testing is always recommended for couples who are worried about a second affected child.

But prenatal testing procedures may not be for everyone, since they are expensive and many parents may not want to know or act on the information.

The testing is more than 99 per cent reliable in most genetic centers, only rarely is there a sampling of maternal cells, failure of cells to grow or bacterial or yeast contamination. Mosaic Trisomy 21 A mosaic DS child has two populations of cells, the trisomy 21 cells, and a second cell line, usually normal.

The physical features may be milder in these individuals, particularly if there is a large proportion of normal cells. It was once thought that the unequal chromosome division of mosaic DS takes place early after fertilization, and is a defect in mitotic cell division.

Thus, Mosaic DS may also be related to maternal age. This also means that an increased recurrence risk is theoretically possible, and prenatal studies for subsequent pregnancies would be recommended.

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Roberts, an Australian chromosome expert who originally described this type of translocation. A Robertsonian translocation is formed when one chromosome 21 attaches to another chromosome, forming a single new, chromosome.

The recipient chromosome is usually chromosome 14 and the combination of 2 chromosomes is called a fourteen, twenty one translocation, written t 14;21 or t 14q21q.

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The q refers to the long arm of a chromosome. Here, the long arm of 21 is attached to the long arm of Karyotypes with a Robertsonian translocation can be balanced or unbalanced.

Individuals who have one 21, one 14, and a t 14;21 are balanced: Here there are 45 instead of the usual 46 chromosomes. The one translocation chromosome now carries the original 2 chromosomes.

A translocation DS karyotype is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 Down syndrome results when there are two chromosomes 21, one 14, and one t 14q21q because this combination has 3 chromosomes 21, a trisomy 21 by a different genetic mechanism. Sometimes, a Robertsonian translocation is formed between a 21 and a chromosome other than a There are Robertsonian translocations between 13 and 21; 15 and 21; and 21 and The recurrence risks for DS for balanced carriers with these other translocations is taken to be the same as that for the t 14; In about one-fourth of translocation DS individuals, the translocation is inherited.

When it runs in families, the carriers are usually unaware they have a translocation because there are no problems for the balanced translocation carrier. Only with the birth of a DS child or DS fetus by miscarriage, does the couple find out one parent is a translocation carrier.

A carrier parent can have a chromosomally normal child, or a child who is a balanced carrier like the parent, or a DS child. Curiously, the chance that such a couple will have another DS child depends on which parent is the carrier.The second is mosaic DS, where trisomy 21 cells are mixed with a second cell line, usually "normal" (46,XX or 46,XY).

Individuals with this form of DS are frequently a bit milder in their presentation, depending on the proportion of normal cells. 3 Essay Types Probably since the beginning of IELTS, oh so long ago, IELTS teachers and textbooks have taught you that there are 3 different essays you need to master.

The belief up until recently was that you could use one of these three to tackle every IELTS Task 2 essay question.

A mixed economy is aimed at taking advantage of all the three types of economies, harnessing these advantages into one set of economic system. Just like the three distinct types of economies, a mixed economy has various advantages as well as disadvantages as will be discussed shortly.

How to Write a Comparative Essay. In this Article: Article Summary Developing the Essay Content Organizing the Content Writing the Essay Community Q&A Perhaps you have been assigned a comparative essay in class, or need to write a comprehensive comparative report for work.

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A mixed type essay

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