In completion of the requirements of English II Honors November 3, Formal Research Proposal The research being conducted is the evaluative impact of the effects of sleep deprivation. Over 70 million citizens in America alone suffer in some form or another sleep deprivation. In todays modern society, the population is greatly affected by not getting enough rest each night.
Outcomes are inconsistent in various dual tasks used for measuring divided attention. Sleep deprivation of 24 h impaired performance in one study Wright and Badiawhereas in two others, performance was maintained after 25—35 h of SD Drummond et al ; Alhola et al The divergent findings in these studies may be explained by the uneven loads between different subtests as well as by uncontrolled practice effect.
Although dividing attention between different tasks puts high demands on cognitive capacity, subjects often attempt to reduce the load by automating some easier procedures of a dual or multitask. In the study by Wright and Badiathe test was not described; in the study by Alhola et alsubjects had to count backwards and carry out a visual search task simultaneously, and in the study by Drummond et al subjects had to memorize words and complete a serial subtraction task sequentially.
In addition, differences in essential study elements, like the age and gender of participants, as well as the duration of SD, further complicate comparison of the results.
In the tasks measuring attention or working memory, two aspects of performance are important: In practice, people can switch their emphasis between the two with attentional focusing Rinkenauer et al Oftentimes, concentrating on improving one aspect leads to the deterioration of the other. Some SD studies have found impairment only in performance speed, whereas accuracy has remained intact De Gennaro et al ; Chee and Choo In others, the results are the opposite Kim et al ; Gosselin et al De Gennaro et al proposed that in self-paced tasks, there is likely to be a stronger negative impact on speed, while accuracy remains intact.
In experimenter-paced tasks, the effect would be the opposite. However, many studies show detrimental effect on both speed and accuracy eg, Smith et al ; Jennings et al ; Chee and Choo ; Habeck et al ; Choo et al It has been argued that low signal rates increase fatigue during performance in SD studies and that subjects may even fall asleep during the test Dorrian et al Therefore, tasks with different signal loads may produce different results in terms of performance speed and accuracy.
Long-term memory Long-term memory can be divided between declarative and non-declarative procedural memory. Declarative memory is explicit and limited, whereas non-declarative memory is implicit and has a practically unlimited capacity.
Declarative memory includes semantic memory, which consists of knowledge about the world, and episodic memory, which holds autobiographical information. The contents of declarative memory can be stored in visual or verbal forms and they can be voluntarily recalled.
Non-declarative or procedural memory includes the information needed in everyday functioning and behavior, eg, motor and perceptual skills, conditioned functions and priming.
In previous studies, long-term memory has been measured with a variety of tasks, and the results are somewhat inconsistent. In verbal episodic memory, SD of 35 h impaired free recall, but not recognition Drummond et al The opposite results were obtained with one night of SD Forest and Godbout In addition, Drummond et al used a within-subject design, whereas Forest and Godbout had a between-subject design.
In visual memory, recognition was similar in the experimental and control groups when the measurement was taken once after 36 h SD Harrison and Hornewhereas the practice effect in visual recall was postponed by SD in a study with three measurements baseline, 25 h SD, recovery; Alhola et al Performance was impaired in probed forced memory recall Wright and Badiaand memory search McCarthy and Watersbut no effect was found in episodic memory Nilsson et alimplicit memory, prose recall, crystallized semantic memory, procedural memory, or face memory Quigley et al In the studies failing to find an effect, however, the subjects spent only the SD night under controlled conditions Quigley et al ; Nilsson et al Free recall and recognition are both episodic memory functions which seem to be affected differently by SD.
Temporal memory for faces recall deteriorated during 36 h of SD, although in the same study, face recognition remained intact Harrison and Horne In verbal memory, the same pattern was observed Drummond et al One explanation may be different neural bases, which supports the prefrontal vulnerability hypothesis.
Episodic memory is strongly associated with the functioning of the medial temporal lobes Scoville and Milnerbut during free recall in a rested state, even stronger brain activation is found in the prefrontal cortex Hwang and Golby It is unclear whether this prefrontal activation reflects episodic memory function, the organization of information in working memory, or the executive control of attention and memory.
Recognition, instead, presumably relies on the thalamus in addition to medial temporal lobes Hwang and Golby Since SD especially disturbs the functioning of frontal brain areas Drummond et al ; Thomas et alit is not surprising that free recall is more affected than recognition.
Although the prefrontal cortex vulnerability hypothesis has received wide support in the field of SD research, other brain areas are also involved.The central research question of this paper is: What are the effects, according to recent literature, of sleep deprivation on someone’s health, performance and cognitive functions.
Introduction Sleep is the natural recurring state . A Report On Sleep Deprivation Psychology Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: It is a problem that causes, in many different ways, harm to our bodies and personalities.
Sleep deprivation has showed a decrease in performance in school and at work for students and adults. It tends to “increase the use of marijuana. Focus your research paper on sleep deprivation -- when a person doesn't get the amount of sleep he needs.
Because people of different ages require different amounts of sleep -- infants need about 16 hours, whereas teenagers need about nine hours -- you can write about sleep deprivation in infants, children, teenagers or adults. The two most widely studied cognitive domains in SD research are attention and working memory, which in fact are interrelated.
et al. Assessing vigilance through a brief pencil and paper letter cancellation task (LCT): Effects of one night of sleep deprivation and of the time of day. et al. The effect of total sleep deprivation on. This essay will look at the meaning of sleep and sleep deprivation and the basic perspectives on what motivates sleep and sleep deprivation with the five perspectives; evolutionary, psychodynamic, behaviourist, cognitive and the hierarchy of needs.
1 THE EFFECTS OF TOTAL SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON BASIC VITAL SIGNS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMANS Amy Martin, Christine Davis, Young-Mi Oh Department of Zoology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC