Dementia is a term used to describe severe changes in the brain that cause memory loss. These changes also make it difficult for people to perform basic daily activities. In most people, dementia causes changes in behavior and personality. Dementia affects three areas of the brain:
Abnormal buildup in the brain The buildup of two abnormal structures in the brain, called amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, is common in AD.
The buildup may be part of the cause, although scientists are unclear about if these findings could be the result of the disease instead. Amyloid plaques are clumps of beta-amyloid, a piece of a protein that is found in the normal brain. When these beta-amyloid proteins clump together, they form plaques that can disrupt communication between nerve cells and cause brain inflammation.
People with AD have an abundance of these plaques in the hippocampusthe part of the brain involved in memory. The transfer of short-term memories into long-term memories is often disrupted in AD. Neurofibrillary tangles are fibrous tangles of an abnormal protein called tau. Tau is an important fiber-like protein that keeps microtubules in the brain stable.
Microtubules move nutrients, molecules, and information to other cells. When tau is harmfully altered, possibly due to genetic mutation, the fibers get twisted up together. This makes the microtubules unstable and causes them to disintegrate.
This effect can collapse the whole neuron transport system. Genetic mutations Some people develop AD as young as their early 30s and 40s. There are three known gene mutations believed to be part of the formation of the amyloid plaques in early onset AD.
Inclusions AD and other dementias are associated with abnormal structures in the brain called inclusions. These structures are made of various abnormal proteins.
Lewy body dementia Lewy body dementia is a common type of progressive dementia. Abnormal structures in the brain called Lewy bodies are characteristic of this disease. The cortex is responsible for thinking, perceiving, producing, and understanding language. Lewy bodies are also often located in various parts of the brain stem and the substantia nigra.
Here, nerve cells release essential neurotransmitters that help control movement and coordination. Vascular dementia The brain requires constant oxygen from the bloodstream.
If the oxygen flow is interrupted long enough, brain cells can die. Any condition that prevents normal blood flow to the brain can cause vascular dementia. There are several types of vascular dementia. The causes and symptoms for each vary slightly.
For example, multi-infarct dementia MID is caused by many small strokes in the brain. Dementia is more common when the stroke takes place in the left hemisphere of the brain and when the stroke involves the hippocampus.
Not all people who have a stroke develop vascular dementia. Frontal lobe dementia Frontal lobe dementia is a group of diseases that cause significant changes in behavior or language capability. These diseases all involve the degeneration of brain cells located in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain.
The frontal and temporal lobes are the areas of the brain behind the eyes and above the ears. These areas control personality, judgment, emotion, and language.
Frontal lobe dementia rarely involves amyloid plaques but often has neurofibrillary tangles. It can run in families, suggesting that genetics may be an important causal factor. With this disease, your brain has abnormal structures called Pick bodies, made mostly of the protein tau, inside the neurons.
Brain cells loaded with Pick bodies tend to balloon up in size and then die. This leads to the characteristic shrinkage, or atrophy, in the frontotemporal regions of the brain.
At the moment, there is no specific treatment for any frontal lobe dementia.Frontotemporal dementia is a name used to describe several types of dementia, all with one thing in common: They affect the front and side parts of .
Dementia is one of the most feared diseases in Western society today. Some have even gone so far as to suggest euthanasia as a solution to the perceived indignity of . Dementia in Ireland - The facts concerning elderly care.
There are currently more than 40, people in Ireland with dementia, with the number expected to be in excess of , by unless there is a medical breakthrough. LBD Symptoms. Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) is an umbrella term that refers to two diagnoses. Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) Parkinson’s Disease Dementia (PDD) The terms DLB and PDD are of primary interest to researchers and less to families and clinicians.
Piracetam (sold under many brand names) is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxopyrrolidine alphabetnyc.com is approved in the United Kingdom but is not approved in the United States.
In the UK, piracetam is prescribed mainly for myoclonus, but is used off-label for other conditions. Evidence to support its use for many conditions is unclear, although it is marketed as a. Dementia is a decline in a person's mental capacities and intellectual abilities that is great enough to affect the person's normal daily functioning.
Vascular dementia is dementia that is caused by disease of the blood vessels of the brain (cerebrovascular disease).