Poster presentations Ageing Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 and hearing impairment in older adults:
The negative impact on public health Edwin J.
The shared struggle of the anti-HIV criminalisation and safe abortion movements… https: HIV criminalization is bad policy based on bad science. Missed the press conference yesterday on HIVCrim? Sharing info about harms… 25 Jul In recent years a number of organisations have published papers, monographs and policy documents highlighting ways in which using the criminal law to address potential or actual HIV exposure or transmission might undermine HIV-prevention efforts.
They suggest that these significant personal and financial resources could be more productively used to expand evidence-informed and human rights-based HIV-prevention efforts.
They also suggest that using the criminal law to address potential or actual HIV exposure or transmission might be counterproductive in the following ways: Prosecuting individuals for behaviour that is very unlikely to expose someone to HIV e.
By providing further incentive for people to avoid learning their HIV status. People aware they are living with HIV may be less likely to seek support in their efforts to avoid infecting others if they fear that information they share about risky behaviour could be used against them in the criminal justice system.
These, and other issues, are further explored in the following sections.
The impact on people who are aware they are living with HIV People living with HIV may be negatively affected by using the criminal law to address potential or actual HIV exposure or transmission in multiple ways.
Increasing HIV-related stigma While it is difficult to empirically prove that laws and prosecutions for potential or actual HIV exposure or transmission have had a direct impact on worsening HIV-related stigma,1 this is a common assertion, for example, by: The opinions of people living with HIV are significant because perceptions of HIV-related stigma affect their willingness to access HIV-related treatment, care and support, which has major public health implications.
International research is underway in this area, undertaken by a global partnership of local, national and international communities and organisations. Researchers from the United Kingdom observed that some HIV-positive gay men reacted to the fear of criminal justice system involvement by not disclosing their HIV-positive status prior to sex that risked HIV exposure.
The investigators noted that this was an "unexpected" finding. As discussed in the chapter: Responsibilitya sexual partner who wrongly believes that he or she is with an HIV-negative person may be more inclined to engage in higher-risk activities such as unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse.
In addition, should a person living with HIV be too afraid to disclose their HIV-positive status to a partner after unprotected intercouse out of concern that this might place them at risk of criminal sanctions, this might also lead to their sexual partner failing to access post-exposure prophylaxis PEP after episodes of potential exposure.
Disincentive to disclose HIV-related risk behaviours to healthcare professionals As discussed in the chapter: Proofdespite the ethical obligation of doctors and other healthcare professionals to maintain confidentiality, legal mechanisms such as search warrants and court orders can allow for confidentiality to be breached.
This may reduce the likelihood of honest and open discussions between people living with HIV and healthcare professionals regarding their sexual behaviour, reducing opportunities for sexual-health screening and support to reduce HIV-related risk taking.
A essay examining the impact of prosecutions on people living with HIV in several Australian states reported that confidence in patient confidentiality had fallen due to fears that information could be obtained by the police and used to prosecute sexual risk-taking behaviour.
Canada — Doctor's testimony over 'safer sex' discussion used as evidence. In a trial for sexual assault and aggravated assault in Quebec, the case hinged on whether the female defendant had engaged in a single instance of unprotected sex without disclosing her HIV-positive status at the start of a five-year relationship.
There was no dispute over whether condoms were subsequently used. Her doctor's testimony included repeating a confidential discussion they had at the time about maintaining sexual practises.
During that discussion the woman admitted to a single instance of unprotected intercourse, and this was admitted into evidence. In his ruling 27Judge Marc Bisson noted that the doctor's testimony was the only convincing piece of evidence supporting the prosecution's case. Consequently, it is likely that the woman would not have been convicted had she not talked frankly about safer sex with her doctor.
The woman was a given a one-year sentence to be served in the community due to her fragile health. Researchers in the United Kingdom have reported reluctance on the part of HIV-positive individuals to participate in studies where they disclose their sexual behaviour because of fears about the possibility that what they disclosed could be used against them in criminal prosecutions.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that, in some cases, media reports have actually persuaded some people at high risk of being HIV-positive to test, particularly when they have had prior sexual contact with the accused. There are, in fact, no data suggesting that people are inclined to delay or avoid testing specifically due to fear of criminal or other legal consequences.National Survey Examines Perceptions of Health Care Provider Quality Main Content Chicago, July 20, —The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research has released the results of a major survey examining the public’s opinions about what it means to be a quality health care provider in the United States.
Hi Teresa, I stumbled on to this article while working on a paper about “Structural Stigma” for my Community Mental Health course.
To be honest, I learned . A fortnightly summary of HIV research news. HIV treatment is not a cure, but it is keeping millions of people well. Start learning about it in this section. Just diagnosed In this section we have answered some of the questions you might have if you have just found out you have HIV.
Conclusions: Public perceptions of Australian medical professionals, institutions and systems are generally positive.
This sample did not endorse an individual user-pays private health system, but strongly favoured a universal public health system that is collectively funded by the public purse. EBRI compared the latest results with those reported in prior years, and said it appears the average American’s perception of the health care system is “low and continues to fall.” “Dissatisfaction with the health care system appears to be focused primarily on cost,” EBRI said in a news release.
Advances in Public Health is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of public health.