Drawing on concepts from ethology, cybernetics, information processing, developmental psychology, and psychoanalysts, John Bowlby formulated the basic tenets of the theory. Ainsworth contributed the concept of the attachment figure as a secure base from which an infant can explore the world. In addition, she formulated the concept of maternal sensitivity to infant signals and its role in the development of infant-mother attachment patterns.
Attachment theory and Attachment in children Attachment theory is primarily an evolutionary and ethological theory. In relation to infants, it primarily consists of proximity seeking to an attachment figure in the face of threat, for the purpose of survival.
Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant, and who remain as consistent caregivers for some time.
Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment which in turn lead to 'internal working models' which will guide the individual's feelings, thoughts and expectations in later relationships.
Basic trust is a broader concept than attachment in that it extends beyond the infant-caregiver relationship to " In the clinical sense, a disorder is a condition requiring treatment as opposed to risk factors for subsequent disorders. Reactive attachment disorder indicates the absence of either or both the main aspects of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure.
This can occur either in institutions, or with repeated changes of caregiver, or from extremely neglectful primary caregivers who show persistent disregard for the child's basic attachment needs after the age of 6 months.
The words attachment style or pattern refer to the Sensitive mothering ainsworth bowlby types of attachment arising from early care experiences, called secure, anxious-ambivalent, anxious-avoidant, all organizedand disorganized. Some of these styles are more problematic than others, and, although they are not disorders in the clinical sense, are sometimes discussed under the term 'attachment disorder'.
Discussion of the disorganized attachment style sometimes includes this style under the rubric of attachment disorders because disorganized attachment is seen as the beginning of a developmental trajectory that will take the individual ever further from the normal range, culminating in actual disorders of thought, behavior, or mood.
Zeanah and colleagues proposed an alternative set of criteria see below of three categories of attachment disorder, namely "no discriminated attachment figure", "secure base distortions" and "disrupted attachment disorder". These classifications consider that a disorder is a variation that requires treatment rather than an individual difference within the normal range.
There is as yet no official consensus on these criteria. The APSAC Taskforce recognised in its recommendations that "attachment problems extending beyond RAD, are a real and appropriate concern for professionals working with children", and set out recommendations for assessment. This would significantly extend the definition beyond the ICD and DSM-IV-TR definitions because those definitions are limited to situations where the child has no attachment or no attachment to a specified attachment figure.
Boris and Zeanah use the term "disorder of attachment" to indicate a situation in which a young child has no preferred adult caregiver. Such children may be indiscriminately sociable and approach all adults, whether familiar or not; alternatively, they may be emotionally withdrawn and fail to seek comfort from anyone.
Boris and Zeanah also describe a condition they term "secure base distortion". In this situation, the child has a preferred familiar caregiver, but the relationship is such that the child cannot use the adult for safety while gradually exploring the environment.
Such children may endanger themselves, may cling to the adult, may be excessively compliant, or may show role reversals in which they care for or punish the adult. The third type of disorder discussed by Boris and Zeanah is termed "disrupted attachment".
This type of problem, which is not covered under other approaches to disordered attachment, results from an abrupt separation or loss of a familiar caregiver to whom attachment has developed. The young child's reaction to such a loss is parallel to the grief reaction of an older person, with progressive changes from protest crying and searching to despair, sadness, and withdrawal from communication or play, and finally detachment from the original relationship and recovery of social and play activities.
Most recently, Daniel Schechter and Erica Willheim have shown a relationship between maternal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder and secure base distortion see above which is characterized by child recklessness, separation anxiety, hypervigilance, and role-reversal.
Attachment theory and Attachment in children The majority of 1-year-old children can tolerate brief separations from familiar caregivers and are quickly comforted when the caregivers return.
These children also use familiar people as a "secure base" and return to them periodically when exploring a new situation. Such children are said to have a secure attachment style, and characteristically continue to develop well both cognitively and emotionally.Attachment theory plays a very important role in parenting, especially Attachment Parenting..
Just imagine, that about years ago people thought that sensitive care or even caring for your own child would harm them, turn them into spoiled, sick and nonfunctional human beings. Maternal sensitivity is a mother's ability to perceive and infer the meaning behind her infant's behavioural signals, and to respond to them promptly and alphabetnyc.comal sensitivity affects child development at all stages through life, from infancy, all the way to adulthood.
In general, more sensitive mothers have healthier, more socially and cognitively developed children than those. Attachment theory is a psychological model attempting to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans. "Attachment theory is not formulated as a general theory of relationships; it addresses only a specific facet": how human beings respond within relationships when hurt, separated from loved ones, or perceiving a threat.
Over the last generation, profound changes have occurred in the relationship between sexuality and reproduction, the assumption that pregnancy leads to parenthood, and the equation of parenthood with loving parental ties. Attachment disorder is a broad term intended to describe disorders of mood, behavior, and social relationships arising from a failure to form normal attachments to primary care giving figures in early alphabetnyc.com a failure would result from unusual early experiences of neglect, abuse, abrupt separation from caregivers between 6 months and three years of age, frequent change or excessive.
Bowlby referred to this as the "ordinary expectable environment". One of Mary Ainsworth's important contributions was to identify key features of parental care that help organize early secure base behavior.
the mother must be reasonably accessible to the baby's communications before she can be sensitive to them. Accessibility is a necessary.