Prehistory to the Roman era[ edit ] Toulon Cathedral 11th to 18th centuries Archaeological excavations, such as those at the Cosquer Cave near Marseilleshow that the coast of Provence was inhabited since at least the Paleolithic era.
The parentage of Robert "le Fort" is obscure.
Some general indications of his origin are found in near contemporary sources, but these are contradictory. A Saxon origin is suggested by two sources: Other early sources specifically state that nothing is known of the origins of Robert, for example Rodulphus Glaber "cuius genus…oscurum" .
However, there are two possible interpretations of the dating clause of this document. If it refers to Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, whose reign is normally dated from the death of his father in Junthe year would be  the year after Robert "le Fort" died.
Another possibility is that the clause refers to Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, in which case the year would beindicating that the donor was the future Robert I King of France, rather than Robert "le Fort", although this would not change the significance of the relationship described "avunculus" could also have been used in the document in the sense of "great-uncle".
It should be emphasised that this hypothesis is speculative. No primary source has yet been found which points specifically towards this suggested co-identity, although it is consistent with the Franconian origin referred to by the Annales Xantenses and by Widukind, as noted above.
It is assumed that the suggestion is based primarily on onomastics, although the first secondary source which proposed the connection has not yet been identified and therefore has not been checked. The timing of the supposed arrival of Robert from Franconia, assuming that the co-identity is correct, is not ideal either.
King Ludwig invaded in Augwhen King Charles was faced with widespread rebellion, and was defeated in Jan Such indications are provided by Regino who names "Waltgerius comes, nepos Odonis regis, filius scilicet avunculi eius Adalhelmi in Aquitanien" when recording his battle against "Ramnulfum et fratrem eius Gozbertum et Ebulonem abbatum de sancto Dionysio " in Juland names "Megingaudus comes, nepos supradicti Odonis regis [son of Robert "le Fort"]" when recording his death, also in .
It cites no corresponding primary source, but presumably the suggestion is based on the Miraculis Sancti Genulfi which names "Agana filia…Byturicensium comes…Wifredus [et]…Oda coniux" as wife of "Roberto viro primoque palatii Pipini regis" .
Could it be possible therefore that he was the same person as Robert "le Fort"? If this was the case, it would be consistent with the Saxon origin which is suggested by Richer and by the Miracula Sancti Benedicti see above.
The Saxon connection of the latter family is suggested by the name Theoderic nine different individuals named Theoderic have been identified in the familywhich was first recorded in Saxony in the family of Widukind by Einhard in see the document SAXONY.
As noted above, the dating clause of this document may either refer to King Charles II "le Chauve" or to Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, in the latter case the donor being the future Robert I King of France not Robert "le Fort", although this would not change the significance of the relationship described "avunculus" could also have been used in the document in the sense of "great-uncle".
Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks restored property to Hincmar Archbishop of Reims which he had previously granted to his supporters, including property granted to "…Rotbertus…", by charter dated 1 Oct .
This co-identity is not beyond doubt. Robert submitted to the king's authority, when he was given command of the march of Neustria, which had been confiscated from the Rorgonid family for supporting the revolt of Louis later King Louis II against his father .
The Annales Bertiniani record that "Rodbertus" attacked "Salomone duce" [duke of Brittany] in . This change of jurisdictional status must have been insufficient to control the Bretons and the Vikings because Robert is named in the Annales Bertiniani in in the context of King Charles imposing direct rule in the area by sending "Hludowicum filium suum" into "Neustriam" and granting him "comitatum Andegavensem et abbatiam Maioris-monasterii et quasdam villas illi", while recording that Robert was compensated with "comitatum Autissiodorensem et comitatum Nivernensem".
Merlet suggests that this charter indicates that Robert "le Fort" was Comte de Blois at the time .Centre de Formation d’Apprentis du Bâtiment en alternance – sites de Saint-Herblain et Saint-Brévin-les-Pins.
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