Chapter 9 — Promoting Comprehension: Sequence, comparison, and cause and effect, for example, are three internal patterns used to organize nonfiction texts. Literary devices and conventions include symbolism and tone in stories, headings and indexes in nonfiction books, and page layouts for poems. Three general subcategories are folklore, fantasies, and realistic fiction.
Graphic way of organizing concepts proposed during brainstorming. Co-op Co-op Cooperative learning method where teams work to prepare and present a topic to the whole class. Emphasis is on student selection of topics, partners, division of labor, methods of presentation, etc.
Coaching Model A model of instruction where the teacher is a guide and collaborator in the student's learning, not the sole director. Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach Cognitive Apprenticeship Cognitive apprenticeships take many forms, but the two key components are social interactions to allow students to work on problems that may be too difficult for them to handle individually, and a focus on real world problems using real-world tools.
Cognitive Apprenticeship Cognitive Dissonance Leon Festinger proposed this model to explain why people change their beliefs when two or more of their beliefs are in conflict with each other.
Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Learning Models Based on the philosophy that learning occurs when there are changes in mental structure. Learning occurs as the result of interactions between the learner and the environment.
Cognitive Map The psychological definition of a cognitive map is the framework in the human mind through which we interpret objects, events, and concepts.
The phrase "cognitive mapping" has also been used to describe concept maps. Collaborative Learning Any kind of work that involves two or more students. Collaborative Stories Collages Students gather images clippings from magazines, photographs, or their own drawings and organize them to illustrate a concept or point of view.
Collections Could be after class student project or could be classification of classroom collection books or plants, for example. Collective Notebook A notebook maintained by a group in which each member of the group is expected to add an idea or observation during a specified time period typically each day or each week.
The contents of the notebook are regularly shared or published and discussed. Color-by-Number Color Coding Labeling learning materials or concepts with color tags to assist identifying objects or ideas that belong together. Colored Paper Grouping A method for randomly assigning students to groups in which pieces of colored paper are passed out to students, then students with papers of the same color get toether.
Comic Books Useful for engaging visual learners and encouraging a wide variety of students to become involved in discussions of literature and the wide range of social, scientific, and historical topics covered in comic books.Understanding Text Structure READHistory Summer Institute Week 1 Bill Lewis.
structure of expository and narrative text have been found to have better comprehension than students who have not many teachers do not focus directly on comprehension strategies and routines.
Students employ a wide range of strategies and reading skills to enhance comprehension, interpretation, evaluation, and appreciation of themes and symbols. Writing: Through a variety of writing genres, students explore the importance of organization, audience, voice, word choice, figurative language, sentence structure and fluency.
Narrative and Expository Text Strategies. Narrative: Expository: Pre-Reading. Pre-Reading. Think aloud Preview and Predict PreP Picture walk Think/pair/share Word splash Story map Preview chart.
Think aloud KWLQ Anticipation guide PreP Think/pair/share Vocabulary games, Word Jars, Word Bingo. One of the most efficient strategies for which there is an influx of research and practice is training students on text structure knowledge to facilitate their comprehension of the expository texts.
Readers of all ages must be aware of text structures if they are to be most successful (Meyer, ). Develop student’s understanding that literature evokes a variety of Characteristics of historical fiction, blank or free verse poetry character motivation, narrative text and strategies, expository texts and media, issues related to students’ lives, the research process, and the writing process.
Out of the Dust. New York: Scholastic. The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of fiction, narrative nonfiction, and poetry.
a) Describe setting, character development, plot structure, theme, and conflict. b) Compare and contrast forms, including short stories, novels, plays, folk literature, poetry, essays, and biographies.