See Article History Alliance, in international relationsa formal agreement between two or more states for mutual support in case of war. Contemporary alliances provide for combined action on the part of two or more independent states and are generally defensive in nature, obligating allies to join forces if one or more of them is attacked by another state or coalition. Although alliances may be informal, they are typically formalized by a treaty of alliance, the most critical clauses of which are those that define the casus foederis, or the circumstances under which the treaty obligates an ally to aid a fellow member.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Native American history The thoughts and perspectives of indigenous individuals, especially those who lived during the 15th through 19th centuries, have survived in written form less often than is optimal for the historian.
Because such documents are extremely rare, those interested in the Native American past also draw information from traditional artsfolk literaturefolklorearchaeologyand other sources.
Powhatan village of SecotonPowhatan village of Secoton, colour engraving by Theodor de Bry,after a watercolour drawing by John White, c. As one would expect, indigenous American farmers living in stratified societies, such as the Natchezengaged with Europeans differently than did those who relied on hunting and gathering, such as the Apache.
Likewise, Spanish conquistadors were engaged in a fundamentally different kind of colonial enterprise than were their counterparts from France or England.
The sections below consider broad trends in Native American history from the late 15th century to the late 20th century. More-recent events are considered in the final part of this article, Developments in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
North America and Europe circa The population of Native America Scholarly estimates of the pre-Columbian population of Northern America have differed by millions of individuals: In anthropologist James Mooney undertook the first thorough investigation of the problem.
He estimated the precontact population density of each culture area based on historical accounts and carrying capacity, an estimate of the number of people who could be supported by a given form of subsistence. Mooney concluded that approximately 1, individuals lived in Northern America at the time of Columbian landfall.
In ethnohistorian Henry Dobyns estimated that there were between 9, and 12, people north of the Rio Grande before contact; in he revised that number upward to 18, people.
Dobyns was among the first scholars to seriously consider the effects of epidemic diseases on indigenous demographic change.
He noted that, during the reliably recorded epidemics of the 19th century, introduced diseases such as smallpox had combined with various secondary effects i. He then used this and other information to calculate from early census data backward to probable founding populations.
Some of his critics fault Dobyns for the disjunctions between physical evidence and his results, as when the number of houses archaeologists find at a site suggests a smaller population than do his models of demographic recovery.
Others, including the historian David Henige, criticize some of the assumptions Dobyns made in his analyses. For instance, many early fur traders noted the approximate number of warriors fielded by a tribe but neglected to mention the size of the general population.
This group notes that severe epidemics of European diseases may have begun in North America in the late 10th or early 11th century, when the Norse briefly settled a region they called Vinland. Yet another group of demographers protest that an emphasis on population loss obscures the resilience shown by indigenous peoples in the face of conquest.
Most common, however, is a middle position that acknowledges that demographic models of 15th-century Native America must be treated with caution, while also accepting that the direct and indirect effects of the European conquest included extraordinary levels of indigenous mortality not only from introduced diseases but also from battles, slave raids, and—for those displaced by these events—starvation and exposure.
This perspective acknowledges both the resiliency of Native American peoples and cultures and the suffering they bore.
Native American ethnic and political diversity Determining the number of ethnic and political groups in pre-Columbian Northern America is also problematic, not least because definitions of what constitutes an ethnic group or a polity vary with the questions one seeks to answer.
Ethnicity is most frequently equated with some aspect of languagewhile social or political organization can occur on a number of scales simultaneously. Thus, a given set of people might be defined as an ethnic group through their use of a common dialect or language even as they are recognized as members of nested polities such as a clana village, and a confederation.Alliance: Alliance, in international relations, a formal agreement between two or more states for mutual support in case of war.
Contemporary alliances provide for combined action on the part of two or more independent states and are generally defensive in nature, obligating allies to join forces if one or. The eruption of this Second Balkan War tore a rift in the relations between Bulgaria and Russia and led to the downfall of the Danev government amidst the news of Bulgarian defeats in the field.
A new liberal coalition government under Vasil Radoslavov took control and immediately began seeking a diplomatic solution to the crisis, looking primarily towards Germany and Austria-Hungary for help.
During the last three decades of the 20th century, scholars of ethnohistory, of the "new Indian history," and of Native American studies forcefully demonstrated that to understand American history and the American experience, one must include American Indians. North Atlantic Treaty Organization Essay Examples.
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Many of the major conflicts in this period were not fought between single states but between coalitions and alliances. Consequently, European powers, both great and small, were drawn frequently and extensively into warfare and, as a result, states increasingly had to make a choice about which grouping to back.