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Highlight and copy the desired format. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 24 10 Abstract The World Health Organization selects influenza vaccine compositions biannually to cater to peaks in temperate regions.
In tropical and subtropical regions, where influenza seasonality varies and epidemics can occur year-round, the choice of vaccine remains uncertain. Northern Hemisphere vaccine strains and circulating strains in East Asia were closely matched in 7 Southern Hemisphere vaccines also had a low probability of matching H3N2, Strain drift among seasons was common H3N2, East Asia is an important contributor to influenza surveillance but often has mismatch between vaccine and contemporarily circulating strains.
Influenza is a major cause of illness and death worldwide. The human influenza virus spreads rapidly average reproduction number of 1. Continuous evolution of the single-stranded influenza virus results in antigenic drift of its surface proteins hemagglutinin HA and neuraminidase 34.
Antigenic drift occurs on average 2—8 years in response to host immune selection pressure and is most frequently seen in influenza A H3N2followed by influenza B and influenza A H1N1.
Antigenic drift confers the virus an ability to escape immunity induced by previous infection or immunization 5. Effectiveness of current influenza vaccines is predominantly determined by matching between vaccines and circulating strains 6.
WHO reviews influenza vaccine composition each February and September to provide timely recommendation for temperate regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. Tropical and subtropical regions are expected to choose 1 of the 2 recommended vaccine compositions.
However, influenza seasonality varies more in the tropics and subtropics, where epidemics can occur year-round. We analyzed the 2 most frequently drifting influenza types, A H3N2 and B, in Hong Kong during — to examine matching between vaccine strains and circulating field viruses to document the challenges faced in this region.
We evaluated options on choosing the Northern or Southern Hemisphere vaccine compositions and the strategy of an annual or biannual vaccination. Hong Kong is an international hub. In this study, we used Hong Kong as a proxy to reflect the challenges faced in East Asia. We focused on influenza A H3N2 and influenza B, rather than A H1N1because changes in vaccine composition were more frequent for the former 2 viruses.
We sequenced an average of 30 influenza A H3N2 and 30 influenza B clinical samples per year, except forwhen influenza A H1N1 pdm09 predominated.
Selection was prioritized for samples collected during different months to reveal the whole annual spectrum of circulating viruses.Sep 20, · Viruses are growing in sophistication and are thus able to propagate themselves faster and more effectively, the company said in a statement regarding the Nimda virus.
the most active . Antibodies, through passive or active immunization, play a central role in prophylaxis against many infectious agents. While neutralization is a primary function of antibodies in protection against most viruses, the relative contribution of Fc-dependent and complement-dependent anti-viral activities of antibodies was found to vary between different viruses in recent studies.
These are seven of the most deadly viruses known to mankind. 1. Ebola – mortality rate up to 90 per cent Top 10 most-watched pre music videos on YouTube 20 Jul - pm.
The connection between viruses and disease is one of the most active areas of medical research. These are among the questions yet to be answered: The Spanish Flu makes this list of deadly viruses because in it caused the deaths of million people worldwide.
The reason it was so deadly is because of its ability to spread easily. However, in only 7 (%) seasons, the closely matched portion accounted for the >50% of circulating viruses examined.
A full match was achieved in only 2 (%) seasons. We've tested more than 40 utilities to help you pick the best antivirus protection for your computers. The Best Antivirus Protection of Kaspersky Anti-Virus .