Web based writing assessment topics

Instructional and Assessment Guidelines By:

Web based writing assessment topics

Steven Graham, Karen R. Harris, and Lynn Larsen This paper presents six principles designed to prevent writing difficulties as well as to build writing skills: Abstract Many students with LD experience difficulties mastering the process of writing.

We examine how schools can help these children become skilled writers. Six principles designed to prevent as well as alleviate writing difficulties are presented. The mn was sneB translation: If theu go to like dutch countri sombodie might ask them something theu cold have two kinds of langage The two compositions presented above were written by Arthur Dent 1, a 5th-grade child with a learning disability LD.

The first was written at the start of 2nd grade in response to a picture of a young girl showing her father a large fish she had caught. One, his responses are inordinately short, containing few ideas and little elaboration, and two, it is difficult to decipher his writing, because of spelling, punctuation, and capitalization miscues.

His teacher observed that he was reluctant to write, often became frustrated while writing, and avoided working or sharing his writing with others. Teachers in 2nd and 3rd grade indicated that Arthur would hurry through writing assignments, doing little or no planning in advance, and writing quickly, taking short pauses to think about the spelling of a word or what to say next.

web based writing assessment topics

They further noted that it was difficult to get him to revise his written work, and when he did revise, his efforts typically focused on making the paper neater, correcting spelling miscues, web based writing assessment topics changing a word here and there.

As a consequence of his difficulties with writing, Arthur was tested for learning disabilities at the start of 4th grade. Although his intellectual capabilities were within the normal range, he scored 2 standard deviations below the mean on a norm-referenced writing test, qualifying him for special education services.

They are shared by many other children with LD. Just like Arthur, children with LD typically employ an approach to composing that minimizes the role of planning in writing. Like Snoopy, children with LD often compose by drawing any information from memory that is somewhat appropriate, writing it down, and using each idea to stimulate the generation of the next one.

With this retrieve - and-write process little attention is directed at the needs of the audience, the constraints imposed by the topic, the development of rhetorical goals, or the organization of text.

Another Peanuts cartoon involving Snoopy as well as his most ardent critic, Lucy, captures a second similarity between Arthur and other poor writers with LD. After typing, "Dear Sweetheart," Snoopy gives his paper to Lucy for feedback. She quickly informs him that he should use a more endearing greeting.

web based writing assessment topics

When asked to revise, they primarily employ a thesaurus approach to revising, correcting mechanical errors and making minor word substitutions. Not surprisingly, this approach has little impact on improving the quality of their writing. A third similarity between Arthur and other students with LD can be revealed by returning to our friend Snoopy once again.

He has it all confused, however, thinking that it is the "I before C" rule, or maybe the "E before M except after G" rule, or possibly the "3 before 2 except after 10" rule. Like Snoopy, many children with LD struggle with the mechanics of writing.

In contrast to classmates who write well, their papers are replete with spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and handwriting errors. Mechanical skills, such as handwriting fluency and spelling, however, play an important role in writing development, accounting for a sizable portion of the variance in writing quality and fluency.

While practicing her periods, Sally tells her brother that periods are very important, shouting that a "PERIOD" must be added at the end of every sentence.

Like Sally, children with LD often overemphasize the importance of transcription skills, such as handwriting, spelling, punctuation, or capitalization. In comparison to classmates who write well, they are more likely to stress form when describing good writing and what good writers do.

They are also less knowledgeable about writing and the process of writing. In this paper, we examine how schools can help children like Arthur and other students with LD become skilled writers.

The writing instruction that Many of these children currently receive is inadequate. Instruction for some of these students focuses almost exclusively on the teaching of lower-level writing skills, such as handwriting and spelling, with few opportunities to actually write.

Others are placed in classes where frequent writing is emphasized, but little time is devoted to teaching needed writing skills and strategies, as it is assumed that these skills can be mastered through informal and incidental methods of learning.

Still other children attend schools where virtually no time is provided for either writing or writing instruction. It is highly unlikely that children with LD will acquire all they need to know in programs like these. We believe that writing instruction for these students must emphasize both prevention and intervention; respond to the specific needs of each child; maintain a healthy balance between meaning, process, and form; and employ both formal and informal learning methods.

The design of such instruction is not an easy task, as it is not limited to a single teacher or grade. Instead, it requires a coherent, coordinated, and extended effort. The writing problems of children with LD are not transitory difficulties that are easily fixed.

Our recommendations for providing such a program center on the following 6 principles:Reducing Childhood Lead Exposure. Read the press release announcing Former Administrator Pruitt's effort to eliminate lead poisoning. View the letter inviting cabinet secretaries and other principals to a meeting on next steps in developing a federal strategy to reduce childhood lead exposure.

Providing educators and students access to the highest quality practices and resources in reading and language arts instruction. To save you time, ENC offers math and science educators access to information about more than 27, print and multi-media curriculum resources and professional development materials.

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the only nationally representative assessment of what students know and can do in various subjects, reported in the Nation's Report Card.

There are many different ways to assess student skills, and multiple choice tests need to be understood within the spectrum of the many options available for teachers to measure assessment. The Guide to Grammar and Writing contains scores of digital handouts on grammar and English usage, over computer-graded quizzes, recommendations on writing -- from basic problems in subject-verb agreement and the use of articles to exercises in parallel structures and help with argumentative essays, and a way to submit questions about grammar and writing. How was the OELPA developed? The OELPA was developed by the English Language Proficiency Assessment for the 21 st Century (ELPA21) consortium through a federal Enhanced Assessment Grant. Eight states belong to the consortium: Arkansas, Iowa, Louisiana, Nebraska, Ohio, Oregon, Washington and West Virginia.

December Intersession Online Workshops for Faculty & Staff Workshops to address group work, tackling tough topics. Managing student groups and addressing challenging issues are the topics of two online workshops that will offered during December Intersession. The Praxis ® tests measure the academic skills and subject-specific content knowledge needed for teaching.

The Praxis tests are taken by individuals entering the teaching profession as part of the certification process required by many states and professional licensing organizations.

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