Domino See Slippery Slope. Double Standard There are many situations in which you should judge two things or people by the same standard. If in one of those situations you use different standards for the two, your reasoning contains the Fallacy of Using a Double Standard. I know we will hire any man who gets over a 70 percent on the screening test for hiring Post Office employees, but women should have to get an 80 to be hired because they often have to take care of their children.
Introduction The main topic of the article is the Western metaphilosophy of the last hundred years or so.
But that topic is broached via a sketch of some earlier Western metaphilosophies. Once that sketch is in hand, the article defines the notion of metaphilosophy and distinguishes between explicit and implicit metaphilosophy.
Then there is a consideration of how metaphilosophies might be categorized and an outline of the course of the remainder of the article. Some Pre-Twentieth Century Metaphilosophy Socrates believed that the unexamined life — the unphilosophical life — was not worth living PlatoApology, 38a.
Indeed, Socrates saw his role as helping to rouse people from unreflective lives. According to Aristotlephilosophy begins in wonder, seeks the most fundamental causes or principles of things, and is the least necessary but thereby the most divine of sciences Metaphysics, book alpha, sections 1—3.
Later philosophers continued and even intensified the stress on philosophical practicality. The Roman Cicero held that to study philosophy is to prepare oneself for death.
The idea that philosophy is the handmaiden of theology, earlier propounded by the Hellenistic thinker Philo of Alexandriais most associated with the medieval age and particularly with Aquinas.
Aquinas resumed the project of synthesizing Christianity with Greek philosophy - a project that had been pursued already by various thinkers including AugustineAnselmand Boethius. Boethius was a politician inspired by philosophy — but the politics ended badly for him.
In those respects he resembles the earlier Seneca. And, like Seneca, Boethius wrote of the consolations of philosophy. Is philosophy a process or a product? What kind of knowledge can philosophy attain?
How should one understand philosophical disagreement? Is philosophy historical in some special or deep way? Should philosophy make us better people? What method s and types of evidence suit philosophy?
How should philosophy be written presuming it should be written at all? Is philosophy, in some sense, over — or should it be?
But how might one define metaphilosophy? One definition owes to Morris Lazerowitz. One alternative definition construes metaphilosophy as the philosophy of philosophy. Sometimes that definition intends this idea: That idea itself comes in two versions.
The thought here is this. Metaphilosophy, as the application of philosophy to philosophy itself, is simply one more instance of philosophy Wittgenstein Metaphilosophy stands to philosophy as philosophy stands to its subject matter or to other disciplines Reschersuch that, as Williamson puts it loc.
On this definition, metaphilosophy is post-philosophy. Indeed, those construals have little content until after one has a considerable idea of what philosophy is.
Such indeed is a third possible reading of the philosophy-of-philosophy construal. Now, just what does so pertain is moot; and there is a risk of being too unaccommodating.What does critical thinking mean?.
The first and perhaps the most important thing to note is that critical thinking is a skill and, just like any other skill, the more you practice it . Critical thinking means making reasoned judgments that are logical and well-thought out.
It is a way of thinking in which you don't simply accept all arguments and conclusions you are exposed to. Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy: Relations, Differences, and Limits. Nicholas C. Burbules and Rupert Berk Department of Educational Policy Studies.
Critical thinking is a process of evaluation which uses logic to separate truth from falsehood, reasonable from unreasonable beliefs.
If you want to better evaluate the various claims, ideas, and arguments you encounter, you need a better understanding of basic logic and the process of critical thinking. An Educator's Guide to Critical Thinking Terms and Concepts. clarify: To make easier to understand, to free from confusion or ambiguity, to remove alphabetnyc.comy is a fundamental perfection of thought and clarification a fundamental aim in critical thinking.
Critical thinking is simply reasoning out whether a claim is true, partly true, sometimes true, or false. Logic is applied by the critical thinker to understand character, motivation, point of view and expression.